Roberts was born in New Orleans known as Mary Martha Corinne Morrison Claiborne Boggs but that was a full name so her brother Tommy could not pronounce her given name Corinne and received the nickname Cokie.
Her parents were Lindy Boggs and Hale Boggs, each of whom served for decades as Democratic members of the House of Representatives from Louisiana; Lindy succeeded Hale after his plane disappeared over Alaska in 1972. Cokie was their third child. Her sister, Barbara became mayor of Princeton, New Jersey and a candidate for the United States Senate. Her brother, Tommy as a child could not pronounce her given name Corrine.
She attended the Academy of the Sacred Heart an all-girls Roman Catholic High School in New Orleans and graduated from the Stone Ridge School, an all-girls school outside Washington, D.C., in 1960.
She graduated from Wellesley College in 1964, where she received a BA in Political Science.
Roberts’ first job in journalism was at WRC-TV in Washington, D.C., where she was host of its weekly public affairs program Meeting of the Minds.
After moving with Steve to New York City, she found work in 1967 as a reporter for Cowles Communications. She worked briefly as a producer for WNEW-TV before Steve’s journalism career had them relocating to Los Angeles. She worked for Altman Productions and then for KNBC-TV as producer of the children’s program Serendipity which won a 1971 Los Angeles Area Emmy Award. She also moved with her husband to Greece where she was a stringer for CBS News in Athens.
Roberts began working for National Public Radio (NPR) in 1978 working as the congressional correspondent for more than ten years. Because of her early involvement in the network as a female journalist at a time when women were not often involved in journalism at the highest levels, she has been called one of the “founding mothers of NPR”. Roberts was a contributor to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in the evening television news program The MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour. Her coverage of the Iran-Contra Affair for that program won her the Edward Weintal Prize for Diplomatic Reporting in 1988. From 1981 to 1984, in addition to her work at NPR, she also cohosted The Lawmakers, a weekly public television program on Congress. In 1994, The New York Times credited her, along with NPR’s Linda Wertheimer and Nina Totenberg with transforming male-dominated Washington, D.C. political journalism.
Roberts went to work for ABC News in 1988 as a political correspondent for ABC’s World News Tonight with Peter Jennings continuing to serve part-time as a political commentator at NPR.
Starting in 1992, Roberts served as a senior news analyst and commentator for NPR, primarily on the daily news program Morning Edition. Roberts was the co-anchor of the ABC News’ Sunday morning broadcast, This Week with Sam Donaldson & Cokie Roberts from 1996 to 2002, while serving as the chief congressional analyst for ABC News. She covered politics, Congress, and public policy while reporting for World News Tonight and other ABC News broadcasts. She continued to serve occasionally as a panelist on This Week. Her final assignment with NPR was a series of segments on Morning Edition titled “Ask Cokie”, in which she answered questions submitted by listeners about subjects usually related to U.S. politics.
Cokie Roberts in Rome on ABC 2000 Today
In 2002, Roberts was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. She was successfully treated at the time.
On September 17, 2019 Cokie died from complications of disease in Washington, D.C.
The United States is a democracy. That means Americans choose the people who run the government by voting for them in elections. Any citizen of the United States who is at least 18 years old can register to vote. Once registered, a citizen can vote in any election. Each citizen has one vote. But even if you are not old enough to vote, you can still make a difference in elections by speaking up and volunteering. All Americans, young and old, can do this!
The Limits of Power
Elections motivate our leaders to do their jobs well. If Voters aren’t pleased with a leader, they can vote for someone else in the next election. Many elected officials have term limits to keep them from becoming too powerful. For example, a president can only be elected twice. The delegates who wrote the U.S. Constitution created three branches of government. Each branch limits the power of the others.
The Branches of Government
Each of the three branches has a different job. The legislative branches has a different job. The legislative branch creates laws. It is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, together called congress. The judicial branch interprets those laws. It includes the Supreme Court and other federal counts. The executive branch, led by the president, enforces the laws.
Who is Elected?
Voters elect officials at three levels: local, state, and federal. Local elections determine a town’s council members-the legislative bran. The mayor, who heads the local executive branch, is also elected. In some places, people vote on local judges. At the state level, voters elect the state judges. In federal elections, people vote on U.S. congress people and the president. The president, acting with the Senate, chooses all federal judges.
Why Do Elections Matter?
Americans participate in the government through elections, and every vote can impact generations. Voters influence your education, what medical services are available, and the taxes people pay. They affect how we treat land and wildlife across the country, and even who can vote in the future! You can see the effects of voter decisions in action. Are the roads in your neighborhood smooth and clear? Do crossing guards help you get to school?
It’s a Big Job
Elected leaders have many, many responsibilities. Local governments run schools, libraries, parks, and local buses and trains. They are also in charge of people you see in emergencies, including police officers, firefighters, and emergency medical workers. Streets, the water supply, and other basics are local, too. State and the federal governments create and enforce laws at their levels. Their decisions can affect education, health, and other services at their level and the local level.
Who Takes Care of What?
Each of the country’s three levels of government has many jobs with many responsibilities. This diagram shows some of tasks each level takes care of separately and together.
Running for Office
Do you want to run for a government office someday? Candidates for all jobs must be U.S. citizens. Most offices have age requirements too. According to the Constitution, a person must be at least 35 years old to be president or vice president. A senator must be 30, and a representative must be 25. Once a person decides to run for office, no matter what level of government, it takes months of hard work and the help of many dedicated people to win.
Time to Party
Candidates generally belong to a political party. A party is a group of people who support a similar approach to government. The United States has two main parties: Democratic and Republican. Both parties agree on many national goals but often disagree on how to reach those goals. Candidates may be members of other, smaller parties, such as the Green and Independent parties.
Every candidate campaigns, particularly presidential candidates. Candidates must raise money to print signs, run TV commercials, and pay many of the hardworking people helping them. They also organize and travel to rallies and speeches in dozens of towns and cities. An important part of a campaign is creating a slogan. This is a short, catchy saying that can help voters remember candidates and what they stand for.
Winning the Primaries
Several candidates can run for a party’s nomination. Each party can nominate only one candidate per election. Parties choose their candidate through primaries or caucuses. In primaries, voters simply cast ballots. In a caucuses, however, voters give or listen to speeches, participate in debates, and then vote. Each party selects a nominee based on who wins those elections. A presidential nominee announces a running mate, who would become vice president if the candidate won.
Supporting a Candidate
Individuals can give their own money to support or work against a candidate. But over the years, laws made it illegal for companies and unions to do so. In 2008, an organization called Citizens United wanted to release a film against candidate Hillary Clinton. Money from companies had helped make the film, which was illegal at the time. In 2010, the Supreme Court ruled on the case Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission. The justices decided that the donation laws in place partly went against the freedom of speech. Since then, anyone can donate to an independent commercial, film, or other product for or against a candidate. All independent products have to publicly list all the people and groups that donated to it. Companies are still banned from donating directly to a candidate.
Who will Be Elected
The weeks leading up to Election Day are extra busy, filled with rallies and speeches and cheering crowds. Meanwhile, you and all Americans can learn about the candidates and the issues on the ballot. You can read newspaper and voting guides, and watch live debates between the candidates. It’s also important for you to talk with people who have similar opinions to yours as well as those who disagree.
When Are Elections Held?
Americans choose their president every four years on the first Tuesday after November 1. Some states choose their representatives for Congress at the same time. People vote on other federal offices during another national election two years later, halfway through a president’s term. Each states decides when to elect its governor, state legislators, and other state officers. There are also county, city, and school board elections at various times.
Anyone who wants to vote must first register as a voter. If you don’t register, you can’t vote! In most states, voters are automatically registered when they get a driver’s license. but what if you live elsewhere or you don’t drive? To make registration easier for everyone, some states allow voters to register right at a polling place on Election Day. Online registration is common too. There are also voter registration drives. when volunteers remind the public to register and provide any needed paperwork.
Polls are the Place To Be
When Election Day arrives, voters go to polling places, also called polls, to cast their vote. Polling places are usually set up in public buildings such as schools and post offices. Voter are assigned polling places based on where they live. This means a person’s poll should never be far from home! A citizen can only vote once. If someone tries to vote more than once, if it is voter fraud. The person could be arrested.
Votes are cast on ballots that list the names of candidates. The ballot can include candidates running for president, senator, representative, or governor. It could also list local candidates running for mayor, city council, or school board. Most polls uses paper ballots. Voters fill in circles to cast their votes. The votes are then scanned and counted by a machine. Another way to vote is by touch a computer screen or pushing buttons.
In most state and federal elections, candidates win by a plurality. That means the winner must receive more votes than any other candidate. A candidate can often do this without winning a majority, or more than half, of the votes. One major exception is the president, who needs a majority of the electoral votes. Win or lose, candidates thank voters and the people who helped them.
Yes, We Can Vote!
When the US Constitution was written in 1787, it did not set any rules about voting. It left each state to make up their own voting laws. In the first presidential election in 1789, only about 1 percent of the population had suffrage, or could vote. All of them were wealthy white men. The rules in the Constitution, however, allowed it to be changed by adding amendments. Over time, amendments and laws have expanded voting rights.
Chuck E. Cheese is a chain of American restaurants. The chain is the primary brand of CEC Restaurant, Inc. and is headquartered in Irving, Texas. The establishment serves pizza and other menu items, complemented by arcade games, amusement rides, and animatronic displays as a focus of family entertainment. The restaurant’s name is taken from its main character and mascot Chuck E. Cheese.
Chuck E. Cheese’s Pizza Time Theatre was founded by Atari founder Nolan Bushnell, who was seeking to expand the purview of video game arcades beyond more adult locations like pool halls to a child- and family-friendly venue. Bushnell’s experience in the amusement park industry, as well as his fondness for Disneyland’s Country Bear Jamboree, were influential in the conceptualization Pizza Time Theatre. Bushnell has said of his decision to open a pizza restaurant, “It was my pet project … I chose pizza because of the wait time and the build schedule: very few components and not too many ways to screw it up.” After finding out from employees working on the animatronics that the costume he bought was a rodent rather than the coyote he thought he was buying, Bushnell says he suggested changing the name of the establishment from the planned “Coyote Pizza” to “Rick Rat’s Pizza”. Marketing people disliked that and proposed “Chuck E. Cheese” instead, which is what was used.
The first location opened in San Jose, California, in 1977, and was labeled as the first family restaurant to integrate food, cheap animated entertainment, and an indoor arcade. In 1978, when Atari’s then-corporate parent, Warner Communications refused to open additional Pizza Time Theatre locations, Bushnell purchased the rights to the concept and character trademarks from Warner for $500,000. Gene Landrum then resigned from Atari and was made President and chief operating officer of Chuck E. Cheese’s Pizza Time Theatre. By late 1979, Pizza Time Theatre was known to have seven open locations, all in California. Its animatronics were fully produced in-house by Pizza Time Theatre employees.
To expand beyond California and the west coast, Bushnell began to franchise, resulting in a co-development agreement between himself and Robert Brock of Topeka Inn Management in June 1979. The agreement handed Brock exclusive franchising rights for opening Pizza Time Theatres in sixteen states across the Southern and Midwestern United States, while also forming a company subdivision, “Pizza Show Biz”, to develop the Pizza Time Theatres.
Late in 1979, Brock became aware of Aaron Fechter of Creative Engineering, Inc. and his work in animatronics. In November 1979, he scouted Fechter’s business and concluded that Creative Engineering’s animatronics would be too strong a competition for Bushnell’s work. Brock therefore requested that Bushnell release him from their co-development agreement, wishing to develop with Fechter instead. In December 1979, Brock and Fechter formed Showbiz Pizza Place Inc., and Brock gave notice to sever his development relationship with Bushnell. ShowBiz Pizza Place was conceptually identical to Pizza Time Theatre in all aspects except for animation, which would be provided by Creative Engineering. Showbiz Pizza Place opened its first location on March 3, 1980, in Kansas City, Missouri.
Upon the opening of ShowBiz Pizza Place, Bushnell sued Brock and Topeka Inn Management over breach of contract. Brock immediately issued a counter-suit against Bushnell, citing misrepresentation. The court case began in March 1980, eventually settling out of court with Showbiz agreeing to pay Pizza Time Theatre a portion of its profits over the following decade. During this period, Topeka Inn Management also changed its name to Brock Hotel Corporation and moved its headquarters to Irving, Texas. Both restaurants experienced increased success as the video game industry became more robust, and, to maintain competition, both franchises continually modified and diversified their animatronic shows.
In 1981, Pizza Time Theatre went public; however, the evolving video game industry and the video game crash of 1983 resulted in significant losses for Pizza Time Theatre, which lost $15 million in 1983. By early 1984, Bushnell’s debts were insurmountable, resulting in the filing of Chapter 11 bankruptcy for Pizza Time Theatre Inc. on March 28, 1984. Showbiz then bought the foundering company, finalizing the purchase in May 1985 and recreating itself as Showbiz Pizza Time Inc.
After the merge, both restaurant chains continued operating under their respective titles, while major financial restructuring had begun. During this period, Creative Engineering began to sever ties with ShowBiz Pizza Time (officially splitting in September 1990), resulting in the unification of the two brands. By 1992, all restaurants assumed the name of Chuck E. Cheese’s Pizza. The name was then shortened to Chuck E. Cheese’s by March 1995 after a redesigned concept. In 1998, Showbiz Pizza Time renamed itself CEC Entertainment, Inc. to reflect the remaining chain brand.CEC Entertainment has since acquired additional family restaurant properties, including 13 locations of the now-defunct Discovery Zone in 1999,and all locations of Peter Piper Pizza in October 2014. Peter Piper Pizza still operates under that name.
In the early 1980s, Maurice Starr discovered R&B/Pop quintet New Edition. He co-wrote and co-produced their debut with the hits “Candy Girl”.
As of 1984, Maurice and his business partner, Mary Alford started to create the five members with white boys member as a group.
First up Maurice discovered a 15 year old Donnie Wahlberg with his rapping skills and dancing ability and his younger brother Mark.
As for Mark and decided to quit in a few months. As of Donnie and his friends Jamie Kelly and Danny Wood since in Elementary school and decided to join the music group.
After Donnie, Jamie & Danny accepted this group meanwhile, Maurice discovered Jordan Knight and sang an exceptional falsetto and auditioned.
Following Jordan join as a group with his older brother Jonathan Knight was joining too.
As the group began but Jamie Kelly did not make to the group due to conflicting of school work. Since they have four members are Donnie, Danny, Jon and Jordan.
Maurice Starr looks at the history of Band Bands such as The Osmonds (James) and The Jackson 5 Michael Jackson. Maurice has an idea of finding the youngest member.
And finally Maurice Starr discovered the final member named 12 year old Joey Mcintyre to take place of Jamie Kelly.
The group members are completed and started rehearsed after school and on weekend and named the group called Nynuk.
Nynuk meaning as an exclamation from the Three Stooges and the name of the dog in the movie The Lost Boys and also Nanook of the North is a 1922 American silent documentary film. But the groups decided to rename with five boy band members where Starr came up the name,
However, Donnie Wahlberg has a good group name idea for the boys it’s called “New Kids On The Block” while Donnie raps and had written and arranged for their first album and has been contracted Columbia Records.
In April 1986, Columbia Records released the group’s self-titled debut album. It’s very bubble-gum pop, pseudo early Osmonds/New Edition.
After the failure of the first album, Starr had the group back in the studio for most of 1987 and 1988 recording their second album and it’s called Hangin’ Tough and it was released on August 12, 1988.
Since the 1988 release of Hangin’ Tough, the New Kids had performed as the opening act for fellow teen pop singer Tiffany‘s successful North American tour. Due to a sudden rise of the group’s popularity, Tiffany wound up opening for them on this tour, but they were credited as co-headliners.
On April 24, 1989 The Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis declared it’s New Kids On The Block Day.
New Kids appeared the 3rd annual Nickelodeon Kids Choice Awards held on June 25, 1989 at Universal Studios Hollywood.
New Kids On The Block musical special guest on The Oprah Winfrey Show in 1989.
Merry, Merry Christmas is the third studio album by New Kids On the Block on September 19, 1989 featuring This One’s for the Children.
New Kids On the Block appears on Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade 1989
By the early 1990, New Kids On the Block had become one of the most popular acts in the United States. The fourth studio album is called Step By Step was released on June 1990.
In the beginning there was a new cartoon show called New Kids On The Block and aired on September 8 – December 14, 1990 on ABC.
The group performed an estimated two hundred concerts a year, with an extravagant worldwide concert tour that summer, called The Magic Summer Tour, sponsored by Coke.
New Kids released their remix album No More Games and it was released on November 15, 1990. Donnie led the group in this remix album which fused “Harder” elements of hip-hop and urban dance into the New Kids’ sound which includes Call it What You Want & Games [The Kids Get Hard Mix].
On February 10, 1992, the New Kids filed a defamation lawsuit against McPherson regarding his lip-syncing allegations. In April 1992, McPherson dropped his suit against Starr and released a statement recanting his previous allegations stating, “They [The New Kids] did sing lead on their vocals”.
In 1993, after having split from Maurice Starr, the group shortened their name to the initialism NKOTB. In January 1994, their fourth studio album, Face the Music, was released. Their first studio album in close to four years, Face the Music was a musical departure from the group’s previous efforts. Nearly all the songs were written and/or co-produced by the group. In spite of some positive critical reception, the album failed to live up to commercial expectation.
After about two years out of the limelight, the New Kids went back into the studio and began recording their fourth studio album (sixth overall), before splitting up a year later. By this point, due to a strong backlash and allegations of lip-synching, the group pushed for a more mature image and song selection that would appeal to fans. In addition, they had outgrown the “New Kids” name: Joey McIntyre was 21, Jordan Knight was 23, Donnie Wahlberg and Danny Wood were 24, and Jonathan Knight was 25 years old.
On April 2008, the New Kids On The Block have been reunited to record some new songs.
The Block is the sixth studio album by New Kids on the Block. The album was released on September 2, 2008, along with a deluxe edition that included four bonus tracks.
The group’s reunion tour, New Kids on the Block: Live, began at Toronto’s Air Canada Centre on September 18, 2008. They toured the US with Natasha Bedingfield and Lady Gaga as supporting acts. There are 48 total concerts scheduled for Canada and the United States, nine in the United Kingdom, one in Ireland, one in France, one in Amsterdam, Netherlands and two in Germany.